Humans are born with 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs. Most women are 46XX and most men are 46XY. Research suggests, however, that in a few births per thousand some individuals will be born with a single sex chromosome 45X or 45Y sex monosomies and some with three or more sex chromosomes 47XXX, 47XYY or 47XXY, etc. In addition, some males are born 46XX due to the translocation of a tiny section of the sex determining region of the Y chromosome. Similarly some females are also born 46XY due to mutations in the Y chromosome. Clearly, there are not only females who are XX and males who are XY, but rather, there is a range of chromosome complements, hormone balances, and phenotypic variations that determine sex.
WHO | Gender and Genetics
Definition noun, plural: sex chromosomes A type of chromosome in the genome that is involved in the determination of the sex as well as the development of sexual characteristics in an organism Supplement A somatic cell contains a genome comprised of paired chromosome s: the autosome s and sex chromosomes. A sex chromosome is a type of chromosome responsible for the chromosomal determination of the sex of an individual, e. Sex determination is based on the genes responsible for the development of the corresponding sexual characteristics of the organism. The sex chromosome occurs in pairs in somatic cell s while singly in sex cell s gamete s. In humans, there are two forms of sex chromosomes: the X chromosome and the Y chromosome. A pair of X and Y results in a chromosomal male whereas a combination of X and X results in a chromosomal female. Because they differ in form, size, or behavior, they are also referred to as heterotypical chromosomes or heterochromosomes.
Gender and Genetics
A sex chromosome , also referred to as an allosome , heterotypical chromosome , or heterochromosome ,   or idiochromosome  is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior. The human sex chromosomes, a typical pair of mammal allosomes, determine the sex of an individual created in sexual reproduction. Autosomes differ from allosomes because autosomes appear in pairs whose members have the same form but differ from other pairs in a diploid cell , whereas members of an allosome pair may differ from one another and thereby determine sex. Nettie Stevens and Edmund Beecher Wilson both independently discovered sex chromosomes in
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